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The Generalizability of Findings from Laboratory Studies At the heart of this discussion is the distinction between experiments conducted under controlled conditions in artificial laboratory settings and analysis of data obtained from naturalistic environments, such as casinos, lotteries, and markets for betting on horse races or other sports. While experiments can be carried out under controlled conditions in artificial “realworld” environments, we define a naturalistic environment to be one that “has not been artificially manipulated (i.e., a nonexperimental setting)” (Johnson and Bruce 2001, 266). This distinction is crucial, and there is a long-running debate concerning the relative merits of the…

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Gaming In line with the experiences of other nations throughout the world (see, e.g., Hall and Hamon 1996; Nichols, Giacopassi, and Stitt 2002; Meister 2005; etc.), the recent development of casino gaming in various Asian jurisdictions re-validates the argument that legalization and growth of this industry provide a considerable amount of economic income, hence resources and opportunities for promoting tourism, and urban development and re-development. In the process, investments made by related firms further stimulate employment and income in the jurisdiction as well as business opportunities for other hospitality-related businesses, such as hotels and retail (i.e., the accelerator and multiplier…

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Since the dawn of the twenty-first century, casino gaming as a modern industrial sector has been noticeably expanding in the countries/regions of East and Southeast Asia. Following the decision of the Macau government in 2002 to replace its casino monopoly with an oligopolistic structure, and the decision of the Singapore government in 2005 to legalize casino gaming, other jurisdictions. For example  Malaysia, South Korea, the Philippines, and Cambodia, also have taken measures to review and promote the organization of their businesses. In addition, such small-scale casino jurisdictions as Vietnam, India, and Sri Lanka, among others, have demonstrated interest in addressing…

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Throughout the game spectators are allowed to place as many bets as they want. On each bet the bettor chooses either the red team or the blue team and wagers an amount of money against another spectator who chooses the other team and wagers a different amount of money (these amounts become the odds). The bettor who guesses correctly wins the money that the other bettor loses. For example, if you bet 100 euros on the reds against an opponent who bets 100 on the blues and the blues win the match, you pay your opponent 100 euros. Throughout the…

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As an essential component of social capital, culture incorporates a set of socially prescribed behaviors (e.g., social norms and values, habits, etc.) and social cognition for 64 casinos people to interact with one another. In various societies, although the cultures are not identical, they are determined by a number of factors that have resulted from their respective paths of evolution. For example, geographical location, language, and administrative structure traditionally adopted by different Asian societies may have had substantial impacts on cultural traits. Among these factors, religion is probably the most influential. According to Philip Wilkinson (2008, 14), “virtually every culture…

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